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iptables英文详解(2)  

2013-04-03 22:44:23|  分类: iptables规则 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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owner

This module attempts to match various characteristics of the packet creator, for locally generated packets. This match is only valid in the OUTPUT and POSTROUTING chains. Forwarded packets do not have any socket associated with them. Packets from kernel threads do have a socket, but usually no owner.
[!] --uid-owner username
[!] --uid-owner userid[-userid]
Matches if the packet socket's file structure (if it has one) is owned by the given user. You may also specify a numerical UID, or an UID range.
[!] --gid-owner groupname
[!] --gid-owner groupid[-groupid]
Matches if the packet socket's file structure is owned by the given group. You may also specify a numerical GID, or a GID range.
[!] --socket-exists
Matches if the packet is associated with a socket.

physdev

This module matches on the bridge port input and output devices enslaved to a bridge device. This module is a part of the infrastructure that enables a transparent bridging IP firewall and is only useful for kernel versions above version 2.5.44.
[!] --physdev-in name
Name of a bridge port via which a packet is received (only for packets entering the INPUT, FORWARD and PREROUTING chains). If the interface name ends in a "+", then any interface which begins with this name will match. If the packet didn't arrive through a bridge device, this packet won't match this option, unless '!' is used.
[!] --physdev-out name
Name of a bridge port via which a packet is going to be sent (for packets entering the FORWARD, OUTPUT and POSTROUTING chains). If the interface name ends in a "+", then any interface which begins with this name will match. Note that in the nat and mangle OUTPUT chains one cannot match on the bridge output port, however one can in the filter OUTPUT chain. If the packet won't leave by a bridge device or if it is yet unknown what the output device will be, then the packet won't match this option, unless '!' is used.
[!] --physdev-is-in
Matches if the packet has entered through a bridge interface.
[!] --physdev-is-out
Matches if the packet will leave through a bridge interface.
[!] --physdev-is-bridged
Matches if the packet is being bridged and therefore is not being routed. This is only useful in the FORWARD and POSTROUTING chains.

pkttype

This module matches the link-layer packet type.
[!] --pkt-type {unicast|broadcast|multicast}

policy

This modules matches the policy used by IPsec for handling a packet.
--dir {in|out}
Used to select whether to match the policy used for decapsulation or the policy that will be used for encapsulation. in is valid in the PREROUTING, INPUT and FORWARD chains, out is valid in the POSTROUTING, OUTPUT and FORWARD chains.
--pol {none|ipsec}
Matches if the packet is subject to IPsec processing.
--strict
Selects whether to match the exact policy or match if any rule of the policy matches the given policy.
[!] --reqid id
Matches the reqid of the policy rule. The reqid can be specified with setkey(8) using unique:id as level.
[!] --spi spi
Matches the SPI of the SA.
[!] --proto {ah|esp|ipcomp}
Matches the encapsulation protocol.
[!] --mode {tunnel|transport}
Matches the encapsulation mode.
[!] --tunnel-src addr[/mask]
Matches the source end-point address of a tunnel mode SA. Only valid with --mode tunnel.
[!] --tunnel-dst addr[/mask]
Matches the destination end-point address of a tunnel mode SA. Only valid with --mode tunnel.
--next

Start the next element in the policy specification. Can only be used with --strict.

quota

Implements network quotas by decrementing a byte counter with each packet.
--quota bytes
The quota in bytes.

rateest

The rate estimator can match on estimated rates as collected by the RATEEST target. It supports matching on absolute bps/pps values, comparing two rate estimators and matching on the difference between two rate estimators.
--rateest1 name
Name of the first rate estimator.
--rateest2 name
Name of the second rate estimator (if difference is to be calculated).
--rateest-delta
Compare difference(s) to given rate(s)
--rateest1-bps value
--rateest2-bps value
Compare bytes per second.
--rateest1-pps value
--rateest2-pps value
Compare packets per second.
[!] --rateest-lt
Match if rate is less than given rate/estimator.
[!] --rateest-gt
Match if rate is greater than given rate/estimator.
[!] --rateest-eq
Match if rate is equal to given rate/estimator.
Example: This is what can be used to route outgoing data connections from an FTP server over two lines based on the available bandwidth at the time the data connection was started:

# Estimate outgoing rates

iptables -t mangle -A POSTROUTING -o eth0 -j RATEEST --rateest-name eth0 --rateest-interval 250ms --rateest-ewma 0.5s

iptables -t mangle -A POSTROUTING -o ppp0 -j RATEEST --rateest-name ppp0 --rateest-interval 250ms --rateest-ewma 0.5s

# Mark based on available bandwidth

iptables -t mangle -A balance -m conntrack --ctstate NEW -m helper --helper ftp -m rateest --rateest-delta --rateest1 eth0 --rateest-bps1 2.5mbit --rateest-gt --rateest2 ppp0 --rateest-bps2 2mbit -j CONNMARK --set-mark 1

iptables -t mangle -A balance -m conntrack --ctstate NEW -m helper --helper ftp -m rateest --rateest-delta --rateest1 ppp0 --rateest-bps1 2mbit --rateest-gt --rateest2 eth0 --rateest-bps2 2.5mbit -j CONNMARK --set-mark 2

iptables -t mangle -A balance -j CONNMARK --restore-mark

realm

This matches the routing realm. Routing realms are used in complex routing setups involving dynamic routing protocols like BGP.
[!] --realm value[/mask]
Matches a given realm number (and optionally mask). If not a number, value can be a named realm from /etc/iproute2/rt_realms (mask can not be used in that case).

recent

Allows you to dynamically create a list of IP addresses and then match against that list in a few different ways.

For example, you can create a "badguy" list out of people attempting to connect to port 139 on your firewall and then DROP all future packets from them without considering them.

--set, --rcheck, --update and --remove are mutually exclusive.

--name name
Specify the list to use for the commands. If no name is given then DEFAULT will be used.
[!] --set
This will add the source address of the packet to the list. If the source address is already in the list, this will update the existing entry. This will always return success (or failure if ! is passed in).
--rsource
Match/save the source address of each packet in the recent list table. This is the default.
--rdest
Match/save the destination address of each packet in the recent list table.
[!] --rcheck
Check if the source address of the packet is currently in the list.
[!] --update
Like --rcheck, except it will update the "last seen" timestamp if it matches.
[!] --remove
Check if the source address of the packet is currently in the list and if so that address will be removed from the list and the rule will return true. If the address is not found, false is returned.
--seconds seconds
This option must be used in conjunction with one of --rcheck or --update. When used, this will narrow the match to only happen when the address is in the list and was seen within the last given number of seconds.
--hitcount hits
This option must be used in conjunction with one of --rcheck or --update. When used, this will narrow the match to only happen when the address is in the list and packets had been received greater than or equal to the given value. This option may be used along with --seconds to create an even narrower match requiring a certain number of hits within a specific time frame. The maximum value for the hitcount parameter is given by the "ip_pkt_list_tot" parameter of the xt_recent kernel module. Exceeding this value on the command line will cause the rule to be rejected.
--rttl

This option may only be used in conjunction with one of --rcheck or --update. When used, this will narrow the match to only happen when the address is in the list and the TTL of the current packet matches that of the packet which hit the --set rule. This may be useful if you have problems with people faking their source address in order to DoS you via this module by disallowing others access to your site by sending bogus packets to you.

Examples:
iptables -A FORWARD -m recent --name badguy --rcheck --seconds 60 -j DROP

iptables -A FORWARD -p tcp -i eth0 --dport 139 -m recent --name badguy --set -j DROP

Steve's ipt_recent website (http://snowman.net/projects/ipt_recent/) also has some examples of usage.

/proc/net/xt_recent/* are the current lists of addresses and information about each entry of each list.

Each file in /proc/net/xt_recent/ can be read from to see the current list or written two using the following commands to modify the list:

echo +addr >/proc/net/xt_recent/DEFAULT
to add addr to the DEFAULT list
echo -addr >/proc/net/xt_recent/DEFAULT
to remove addr from the DEFAULT list
echo / >/proc/net/xt_recent/DEFAULT
to flush the DEFAULT list (remove all entries).
The module itself accepts parameters, defaults shown:
ip_list_tot=100
Number of addresses remembered per table.
ip_pkt_list_tot=20
Number of packets per address remembered.
ip_list_hash_size=0
Hash table size. 0 means to calculate it based on ip_list_tot, default: 512.
ip_list_perms=0644
Permissions for /proc/net/xt_recent/* files.
ip_list_uid=0
Numerical UID for ownership of /proc/net/xt_recent/* files.
ip_list_gid=0
Numerical GID for ownership of /proc/net/xt_recent/* files.

sctp

[!] --source-port,--sport port[:port]
[!] --destination-port,--dport port[:port]
[!] --chunk-types {all|any|only} chunktype[:flags] [...]
The flag letter in upper case indicates that the flag is to match if set, in the lower case indicates to match if unset.

Chunk types: DATA INIT INIT_ACK SACK HEARTBEAT HEARTBEAT_ACK ABORT SHUTDOWN SHUTDOWN_ACK ERROR COOKIE_ECHO COOKIE_ACK ECN_ECNE ECN_CWR SHUTDOWN_COMPLETE ASCONF ASCONF_ACK

chunk type available flags
DATA U B E u b e
ABORT T t
SHUTDOWN_COMPLETE T t

(lowercase means flag should be "off", uppercase means "on")

Examples:

iptables -A INPUT -p sctp --dport 80 -j DROP

iptables -A INPUT -p sctp --chunk-types any DATA,INIT -j DROP

iptables -A INPUT -p sctp --chunk-types any DATA:Be -j ACCEPT

set

This module matches IP sets which can be defined by ipset(8).
[!] --match-set setname flag[,flag]...
where flags are the comma separated list of src and/or dst specifications and there can be no more than six of them. Hence the command
iptables -A FORWARD -m set --match-set test src,dst

will match packets, for which (if the set type is ipportmap) the source address and destination port pair can be found in the specified set. If the set type of the specified set is single dimension (for example ipmap), then the command will match packets for which the source address can be found in the specified set.

The option --match-set can be replaced by --set if that does not clash with an option of other extensions.

Use of -m set requires that ipset kernel support is provided. As standard kernels do not ship this currently, the ipset or Xtables-addons package needs to be installed.

socket

This matches if an open socket can be found by doing a socket lookup on the packet.
--transparent
Ignore non-transparent sockets.

state

This module, when combined with connection tracking, allows access to the connection tracking state for this packet.
[!] --state state
Where state is a comma separated list of the connection states to match. Possible states are INVALID meaning that the packet could not be identified for some reason which includes running out of memory and ICMP errors which don't correspond to any known connection, ESTABLISHED meaning that the packet is associated with a connection which has seen packets in both directions, NEW meaning that the packet has started a new connection, or otherwise associated with a connection which has not seen packets in both directions, and RELATED meaning that the packet is starting a new connection, but is associated with an existing connection, such as an FTP data transfer, or an ICMP error.

statistic

This module matches packets based on some statistic condition. It supports two distinct modes settable with the --mode option.

Supported options:

--mode mode
Set the matching mode of the matching rule, supported modes are random and nth.
--probability p
Set the probability from 0 to 1 for a packet to be randomly matched. It works only with the random mode.
--every n
Match one packet every nth packet. It works only with the nth mode (see also the --packet option).
--packet p
Set the initial counter value (0 <= p <= n-1, default 0) for the nth mode.

string

This modules matches a given string by using some pattern matching strategy. It requires a linux kernel >= 2.6.14.
--algo {bm|kmp}
Select the pattern matching strategy. (bm = Boyer-Moore, kmp = Knuth-Pratt-Morris)
--from offset
Set the offset from which it starts looking for any matching. If not passed, default is 0.
--to offset
Set the offset from which it starts looking for any matching. If not passed, default is the packet size.
[!] --string pattern
Matches the given pattern.
[!] --hex-string pattern
Matches the given pattern in hex notation.

tcp

These extensions can be used if '--protocol tcp' is specified. It provides the following options:
[!] --source-port,--sport port[:port]
Source port or port range specification. This can either be a service name or a port number. An inclusive range can also be specified, using the format first:last. If the first port is omitted, "0" is assumed; if the last is omitted, "65535" is assumed. If the first port is greater than the second one they will be swapped. The flag --sport is a convenient alias for this option.
[!] --destination-port,--dport port[:port]
Destination port or port range specification. The flag --dport is a convenient alias for this option.
[!] --tcp-flags mask comp
Match when the TCP flags are as specified. The first argument mask is the flags which we should examine, written as a comma-separated list, and the second argument comp is a comma-separated list of flags which must be set. Flags are: SYN ACK FIN RST URG PSH ALL NONE. Hence the command
iptables -A FORWARD -p tcp --tcp-flags SYN,ACK,FIN,RST SYN
will only match packets with the SYN flag set, and the ACK, FIN and RST flags unset.
[!] --syn
Only match TCP packets with the SYN bit set and the ACK,RST and FIN bits cleared. Such packets are used to request TCP connection initiation; for example, blocking such packets coming in an interface will prevent incoming TCP connections, but outgoing TCP connections will be unaffected. It is equivalent to --tcp-flags SYN,RST,ACK,FIN SYN. If the "!" flag precedes the "--syn", the sense of the option is inverted.
[!] --tcp-option number
Match if TCP option set.

tcpmss

This matches the TCP MSS (maximum segment size) field of the TCP header. You can only use this on TCP SYN or SYN/ACK packets, since the MSS is only negotiated during the TCP handshake at connection startup time.
[!] --mss value[:value]
Match a given TCP MSS value or range.

time

This matches if the packet arrival time/date is within a given range. All options are optional, but are ANDed when specified.
--datestart YYYY[-MM[-DD[Thh[:mm[:ss]]]]]
--datestop YYYY[-MM[-DD[Thh[:mm[:ss]]]]]
Only match during the given time, which must be in ISO 8601 "T" notation. The possible time range is 1970-01-01T00:00:00 to 2038-01-19T04:17:07.

If --datestart or --datestop are not specified, it will default to 1970-01-01 and 2038-01-19, respectively.

--timestart hh:mm[:ss]
--timestop hh:mm[:ss]
Only match during the given daytime. The possible time range is 00:00:00 to 23:59:59. Leading zeroes are allowed (e.g. "06:03") and correctly interpreted as base-10.
[!] --monthdays day[,day...]
Only match on the given days of the month. Possible values are 1 to 31. Note that specifying 31 will of course not match on months which do not have a 31st day; the same goes for 28- or 29-day February.
[!] --weekdays day[,day...]
Only match on the given weekdays. Possible values are Mon, Tue, Wed, Thu, Fri, Sat, Sun, or values from 1 to 7, respectively. You may also use two-character variants (Mo, Tu, etc.).
--utc
Interpret the times given for --datestart, --datestop, --timestart and --timestop to be UTC.
--localtz
Interpret the times given for --datestart, --datestop, --timestart and --timestop to be local kernel time. (Default)
EXAMPLES. To match on weekends, use:
-m time --weekdays Sa,Su
Or, to match (once) on a national holiday block:
-m time --datestart 2007-12-24 --datestop 2007-12-27
Since the stop time is actually inclusive, you would need the following stop time to not match the first second of the new day:
-m time --datestart 2007-01-01T17:00 --datestop 2007-01-01T23:59:59
During lunch hour:
-m time --timestart 12:30 --timestop 13:30
The fourth Friday in the month:
-m time --weekdays Fr --monthdays 22,23,24,25,26,27,28
(Note that this exploits a certain mathematical property. It is not possible to say "fourth Thursday OR fourth Friday" in one rule. It is possible with multiple rules, though.)

tos

This module matches the 8-bit Type of Service field in the IPv4 header (i.e. including the "Precedence" bits) or the (also 8-bit) Priority field in the IPv6 header.
[!] --tos value[/mask]
Matches packets with the given TOS mark value. If a mask is specified, it is logically ANDed with the TOS mark before the comparison.
[!] --tos symbol
You can specify a symbolic name when using the tos match for IPv4. The list of recognized TOS names can be obtained by calling iptables with -m tos -h. Note that this implies a mask of 0x3F, i.e. all but the ECN bits.

ttl

This module matches the time to live field in the IP header.
--ttl-eq ttl
Matches the given TTL value.
--ttl-gt ttl
Matches if TTL is greater than the given TTL value.
--ttl-lt ttl
Matches if TTL is less than the given TTL value.

u32

U32 tests whether quantities of up to 4 bytes extracted from a packet have specified values. The specification of what to extract is general enough to find data at given offsets from tcp headers or payloads.
[!] --u32 tests
The argument amounts to a program in a small language described below.
tests := location "=" value | tests "&&" location "=" value

value := range | value "," range

range := number | number ":" number

a single number, n, is interpreted the same as n:n. n:m is interpreted as the range of numbers >=n and <=m.
location := number | location operator number

operator := "&" | "<<" | ">>" | "@"

The operators &, <<, >> and && mean the same as in C. The = is really a set membership operator and the value syntax describes a set. The @ operator is what allows moving to the next header and is described further below.

There are currently some artificial implementation limits on the size of the tests:

*

no more than 10 of "=" (and 9 "&&"s) in the u32 argument

*

no more than 10 ranges (and 9 commas) per value

*

no more than 10 numbers (and 9 operators) per location

To describe the meaning of location, imagine the following machine that interprets it. There are three registers:
A is of type char *, initially the address of the IP header

B and C are unsigned 32 bit integers, initially zero

The instructions are:
number B = number;

C = (*(A+B)<<24) + (*(A+B+1)<<16) + (*(A+B+2)<<8) + *(A+B+3)

&number C = C & number

<< number C = C << number

>> number C = C >> number

@number A = A + C; then do the instruction number

Any access of memory outside [skb->data,skb->end] causes the match to fail. Otherwise the result of the computation is the final value of C.

Whitespace is allowed but not required in the tests. However, the characters that do occur there are likely to require shell quoting, so it is a good idea to enclose the arguments in quotes.

Example:

match IP packets with total length >= 256

The IP header contains a total length field in bytes 2-3.

--u32 "0 & 0xFFFF = 0x100:0xFFFF"

read bytes 0-3

AND that with 0xFFFF (giving bytes 2-3), and test whether that is in the range [0x100:0xFFFF]

Example: (more realistic, hence more complicated)
match ICMP packets with icmp type 0

First test that it is an ICMP packet, true iff byte 9 (protocol) = 1

--u32 "6 & 0xFF = 1 && ...

read bytes 6-9, use & to throw away bytes 6-8 and compare the result to 1. Next test that it is not a fragment. (If so, it might be part of such a packet but we cannot always tell.) N.B.: This test is generally needed if you want to match anything beyond the IP header. The last 6 bits of byte 6 and all of byte 7 are 0 iff this is a complete packet (not a fragment). Alternatively, you can allow first fragments by only testing the last 5 bits of byte 6.

... 4 & 0x3FFF = 0 && ...

Last test: the first byte past the IP header (the type) is 0. This is where we have to use the @syntax. The length of the IP header (IHL) in 32 bit words is stored in the right half of byte 0 of the IP header itself.

... 0 >> 22 & 0x3C @ 0 >> 24 = 0"

The first 0 means read bytes 0-3, >>22 means shift that 22 bits to the right. Shifting 24 bits would give the first byte, so only 22 bits is four times that plus a few more bits. &3C then eliminates the two extra bits on the right and the first four bits of the first byte. For instance, if IHL=5, then the IP header is 20 (4 x 5) bytes long. In this case, bytes 0-1 are (in binary) xxxx0101 yyzzzzzz, >>22 gives the 10 bit value xxxx0101yy and &3C gives 010100. @ means to use this number as a new offset into the packet, and read four bytes starting from there. This is the first 4 bytes of the ICMP payload, of which byte 0 is the ICMP type. Therefore, we simply shift the value 24 to the right to throw out all but the first byte and compare the result with 0.

Example:
TCP payload bytes 8-12 is any of 1, 2, 5 or 8

First we test that the packet is a tcp packet (similar to ICMP).

--u32 "6 & 0xFF = 6 && ...

Next, test that it is not a fragment (same as above).

... 0 >> 22 & 0x3C @ 12 >> 26 & 0x3C @ 8 = 1,2,5,8"

0>>22&3C as above computes the number of bytes in the IP header. @ makes this the new offset into the packet, which is the start of the TCP header. The length of the TCP header (again in 32 bit words) is the left half of byte 12 of the TCP header. The 12>>26&3C computes this length in bytes (similar to the IP header before). "@" makes this the new offset, which is the start of the TCP payload. Finally, 8 reads bytes 8-12 of the payload and = checks whether the result is any of 1, 2, 5 or 8.

udp

These extensions can be used if '--protocol udp' is specified. It provides the following options:
[!] --source-port,--sport port[:port]
Source port or port range specification. See the description of the --source-port option of the TCP extension for details.
[!] --destination-port,--dport port[:port]
Destination port or port range specification. See the description of the --destination-port option of the TCP extension for details.

unclean

This module takes no options, but attempts to match packets which seem malformed or unusual. This is regarded as experimental.

Target Extensions

iptables can use extended target modules: the following are included in the standard distribution.

CHECKSUM

This target allows to selectively work around broken/old applications. It can only be used in the mangle table.
--checksum-fill
Compute and fill in the checksum in a packet that lacks a checksum. This is particularly useful, if you need to work around old applications such as dhcp clients, that do not work well with checksum offloads, but don't want to disable checksum offload in your device.

CLASSIFY

This module allows you to set the skb->priority value (and thus classify the packet into a specific CBQ class).
--set-class major:minor
Set the major and minor class value. The values are always interpreted as hexadecimal even if no 0x prefix is given.

CLUSTERIP

This module allows you to configure a simple cluster of nodes that share a certain IP and MAC address without an explicit load balancer in front of them. Connections are statically distributed between the nodes in this cluster.
--new

Create a new ClusterIP. You always have to set this on the first rule for a given ClusterIP.

--hashmode mode
Specify the hashing mode. Has to be one of sourceip, sourceip-sourceport, sourceip-sourceport-destport.
--clustermac mac
Specify the ClusterIP MAC address. Has to be a link-layer multicast address
--total-nodes num
Number of total nodes within this cluster.
--local-node num
Local node number within this cluster.
--hash-init rnd
Specify the random seed used for hash initialization.

CONNMARK

This module sets the netfilter mark value associated with a connection. The mark is 32 bits wide.
--set-xmark value[/mask]
Zero out the bits given by mask and XOR value into the ctmark.
--save-mark [--nfmask nfmask] [--ctmask ctmask]
Copy the packet mark (nfmark) to the connection mark (ctmark) using the given masks. The new nfmark value is determined as follows:
ctmark = (ctmark & ~ctmask) ^ (nfmark & nfmask)

i.e. ctmask defines what bits to clear and nfmask what bits of the nfmark to XOR into the ctmark. ctmask and nfmask default to 0xFFFFFFFF.

--restore-mark [--nfmask nfmask] [--ctmask ctmask]
Copy the connection mark (ctmark) to the packet mark (nfmark) using the given masks. The new ctmark value is determined as follows:
nfmark = (nfmark & ~nfmask) ^ (ctmark & ctmask);

i.e. nfmask defines what bits to clear and ctmask what bits of the ctmark to XOR into the nfmark. ctmask and nfmask default to 0xFFFFFFFF.

--restore-mark is only valid in the mangle table.

The following mnemonics are available for --set-xmark:
--and-mark bits
Binary AND the ctmark with bits. (Mnemonic for --set-xmark 0/invbits, where invbits is the binary negation of bits.)
--or-mark bits
Binary OR the ctmark with bits. (Mnemonic for --set-xmark bits/bits.)
--xor-mark bits
Binary XOR the ctmark with bits. (Mnemonic for --set-xmark bits/0.)
--set-mark value[/mask]
Set the connection mark. If a mask is specified then only those bits set in the mask are modified.
--save-mark [--mask mask]
Copy the nfmark to the ctmark. If a mask is specified, only those bits are copied.
--restore-mark [--mask mask]
Copy the ctmark to the nfmark. If a mask is specified, only those bits are copied. This is only valid in the mangle table.

CONNSECMARK

This module copies security markings from packets to connections (if unlabeled), and from connections back to packets (also only if unlabeled). Typically used in conjunction with SECMARK, it is only valid in the mangle table.
--save

If the packet has a security marking, copy it to the connection if the connection is not marked.

--restore
If the packet does not have a security marking, and the connection does, copy the security marking from the connection to the packet.

DNAT

This target is only valid in the nat table, in the PREROUTING and OUTPUT chains, and user-defined chains which are only called from those chains. It specifies that the destination address of the packet should be modified (and all future packets in this connection will also be mangled), and rules should cease being examined. It takes one type of option:
--to-destination [ipaddr][-ipaddr][:port[-port]]
which can specify a single new destination IP address, an inclusive range of IP addresses, and optionally, a port range (which is only valid if the rule also specifies -p tcp or -p udp). If no port range is specified, then the destination port will never be modified. If no IP address is specified then only the destination port will be modified.

In Kernels up to 2.6.10 you can add several --to-destination options. For those kernels, if you specify more than one destination address, either via an address range or multiple --to-destination options, a simple round-robin (one after another in cycle) load balancing takes place between these addresses. Later Kernels (>= 2.6.11-rc1) don't have the ability to NAT to multiple ranges anymore.

--random
If option --random is used then port mapping will be randomized (kernel >= 2.6.22).
--persistent
Gives a client the same source-/destination-address for each connection. This supersedes the SAME target. Support for persistent mappings is available from 2.6.29-rc2.

DSCP

This target allows to alter the value of the DSCP bits within the TOS header of the IPv4 packet. As this manipulates a packet, it can only be used in the mangle table.
--set-dscp value
Set the DSCP field to a numerical value (can be decimal or hex)
--set-dscp-class class
Set the DSCP field to a DiffServ class.

ECN

This target allows to selectively work around known ECN blackholes. It can only be used in the mangle table.
--ecn-tcp-remove
Remove all ECN bits from the TCP header. Of course, it can only be used in conjunction with -p tcp.

LOG

Turn on kernel logging of matching packets. When this option is set for a rule, the Linux kernel will print some information on all matching packets (like most IP header fields) via the kernel log (where it can be read with dmesg or syslogd(8)). This is a "non-terminating target", i.e. rule traversal continues at the next rule. So if you want to LOG the packets you refuse, use two separate rules with the same matching criteria, first using target LOG then DROP (or REJECT).
--log-level level
Level of logging (numeric or see syslog.conf(5)).
--log-prefix prefix
Prefix log messages with the specified prefix; up to 29 letters long, and useful for distinguishing messages in the logs.
--log-tcp-sequence
Log TCP sequence numbers. This is a security risk if the log is readable by users.
--log-tcp-options
Log options from the TCP packet header.
--log-ip-options
Log options from the IP packet header.
--log-uid
Log the userid of the process which generated the packet.

MARK

This target is used to set the Netfilter mark value associated with the packet. The target can only be used in the mangle table. It can, for example, be used in conjunction with routing based on fwmark (needs iproute2). The mark field is 32 bits wide.
--set-xmark value[/mask]
Zeroes out the bits given by mask and XORs value into the packet mark ("nfmark"). If mask is omitted, 0xFFFFFFFF is assumed.
--set-mark value[/mask]
Zeroes out the bits given by mask and ORs value into the packet mark. If mask is omitted, 0xFFFFFFFF is assumed.
The following mnemonics are available:
--and-mark bits
Binary AND the nfmark with bits. (Mnemonic for --set-xmark 0/invbits, where invbits is the binary negation of bits.)
--or-mark bits
Binary OR the nfmark with bits. (Mnemonic for --set-xmark bits/bits.)
--xor-mark bits
Binary XOR the nfmark with bits. (Mnemonic for --set-xmark bits/0.)

MASQUERADE

This target is only valid in the nat table, in the POSTROUTING chain. It should only be used with dynamically assigned IP (dialup) connections: if you have a static IP address, you should use the SNAT target. Masquerading is equivalent to specifying a mapping to the IP address of the interface the packet is going out, but also has the effect that connections are forgotten when the interface goes down. This is the correct behavior when the next dialup is unlikely to have the same interface address (and hence any established connections are lost anyway). It takes one option:
--to-ports port[-port]
This specifies a range of source ports to use, overriding the default SNAT source port-selection heuristics (see above). This is only valid if the rule also specifies -p tcp or -p udp.
--random
Randomize source port mapping If option --random is used then port mapping will be randomized (kernel >= 2.6.21).

MIRROR

This is an experimental demonstration target which inverts the source and destination fields in the IP header and retransmits the packet. It is only valid in the INPUT, FORWARD and PREROUTING chains, and user-defined chains which are only called from those chains. Note that the outgoing packets are NOT seen by any packet filtering chains, connection tracking or NAT, to avoid loops and other problems.

NETMAP

This target allows you to statically map a whole network of addresses onto another network of addresses. It can only be used from rules in the nat table.
--to address[/mask]
Network address to map to. The resulting address will be constructed in the following way: All 'one' bits in the mask are filled in from the new 'address'. All bits that are zero in the mask are filled in from the original address.

NFLOG

This target provides logging of matching packets. When this target is set for a rule, the Linux kernel will pass the packet to the loaded logging backend to log the packet. This is usually used in combination with nfnetlink_log as logging backend, which will multicast the packet through a netlink socket to the specified multicast group. One or more userspace processes may subscribe to the group to receive the packets. Like LOG, this is a non-terminating target, i.e. rule traversal continues at the next rule.
--nflog-group nlgroup
The netlink group (1 - 2^32-1) to which packets are (only applicable for nfnetlink_log). The default value is 0.
--nflog-prefix prefix
A prefix string to include in the log message, up to 64 characters long, useful for distinguishing messages in the logs.
--nflog-range size
The number of bytes to be copied to userspace (only applicable for nfnetlink_log). nfnetlink_log instances may specify their own range, this option overrides it.
--nflog-threshold size
Number of packets to queue inside the kernel before sending them to userspace (only applicable for nfnetlink_log). Higher values result in less overhead per packet, but increase delay until the packets reach userspace. The default value is 1.

NFQUEUE

This target is an extension of the QUEUE target. As opposed to QUEUE, it allows you to put a packet into any specific queue, identified by its 16-bit queue number. It can only be used with Kernel versions 2.6.14 or later, since it requires the nfnetlink_queue kernel support. The queue-balance option was added in Linux 2.6.31.
--queue-num value
This specifies the QUEUE number to use. Valid queue numbers are 0 to 65535. The default value is 0.
--queue-balance value:value
This specifies a range of queues to use. Packets are then balanced across the given queues. This is useful for multicore systems: start multiple instances of the userspace program on queues x, x+1, .. x+n and use "--queue-balance x:x+n". Packets belonging to the same connection are put into the same nfqueue.

NOTRACK

This target disables connection tracking for all packets matching that rule.

It can only be used in the raw table.

RATEEST

The RATEEST target collects statistics, performs rate estimation calculation and saves the results for later evaluation using the rateest match.
--rateest-name name
Count matched packets into the pool referred to by name, which is freely choosable.
--rateest-interval amount{s|ms|us}
Rate measurement interval, in seconds, milliseconds or microseconds.
--rateest-ewmalog value
Rate measurement averaging time constant.

REDIRECT

This target is only valid in the nat table, in the PREROUTING and OUTPUT chains, and user-defined chains which are only called from those chains. It redirects the packet to the machine itself by changing the destination IP to the primary address of the incoming interface (locally-generated packets are mapped to the 127.0.0.1 address).
--to-ports port[-port]
This specifies a destination port or range of ports to use: without this, the destination port is never altered. This is only valid if the rule also specifies -p tcp or -p udp.
--random
If option --random is used then port mapping will be randomized (kernel >= 2.6.22).

REJECT

This is used to send back an error packet in response to the matched packet: otherwise it is equivalent to DROP so it is a terminating TARGET, ending rule traversal. This target is only valid in the INPUT, FORWARD and OUTPUT chains, and user-defined chains which are only called from those chains. The following option controls the nature of the error packet returned:
--reject-with type
The type given can be icmp-net-unreachable, icmp-host-unreachable, icmp-port-unreachable, icmp-proto-unreachable, icmp-net-prohibited, icmp-host-prohibited or icmp-admin-prohibited (*) which return the appropriate ICMP error message (port-unreachable is the default). The option tcp-reset can be used on rules which only match the TCP protocol: this causes a TCP RST packet to be sent back. This is mainly useful for blocking ident (113/tcp) probes which frequently occur when sending mail to broken mail hosts (which won't accept your mail otherwise).
(*) Using icmp-admin-prohibited with kernels that do not support it will result in a plain DROP instead of REJECT

SAME

Similar to SNAT/DNAT depending on chain: it takes a range of addresses ('--to 1.2.3.4-1.2.3.7') and gives a client the same source-/destination-address for each connection.

N.B.: The DNAT target's --persistent option replaced the SAME target.

--to ipaddr[-ipaddr]
Addresses to map source to. May be specified more than once for multiple ranges.
--nodst
Don't use the destination-ip in the calculations when selecting the new source-ip
--random
Port mapping will be forcibly randomized to avoid attacks based on port prediction (kernel >= 2.6.21).

SECMARK

This is used to set the security mark value associated with the packet for use by security subsystems such as SELinux. It is only valid in the mangle table. The mark is 32 bits wide.
--selctx security_context

SET

This modules adds and/or deletes entries from IP sets which can be defined by ipset(8).
--add-set setname flag[,flag...]
add the address(es)/port(s) of the packet to the sets
--del-set setname flag[,flag...]
delete the address(es)/port(s) of the packet from the sets
where flags are src and/or dst specifications and there can be no more than six of them.
Use of -j SET requires that ipset kernel support is provided. As standard kernels do not ship this currently, the ipset or Xtables-addons package needs to be installed.

SNAT

This target is only valid in the nat table, in the POSTROUTING chain. It specifies that the source address of the packet should be modified (and all future packets in this connection will also be mangled), and rules should cease being examined. It takes one type of option:
--to-source ipaddr[-ipaddr][:port[-port]]
which can specify a single new source IP address, an inclusive range of IP addresses, and optionally, a port range (which is only valid if the rule also specifies -p tcp or -p udp). If no port range is specified, then source ports below 512 will be mapped to other ports below 512: those between 512 and 1023 inclusive will be mapped to ports below 1024, and other ports will be mapped to 1024 or above. Where possible, no port alteration will

In Kernels up to 2.6.10, you can add several --to-source options. For those kernels, if you specify more than one source address, either via an address range or multiple --to-source options, a simple round-robin (one after another in cycle) takes place between these addresses. Later Kernels (>= 2.6.11-rc1) don't have the ability to NAT to multiple ranges anymore.

--random
If option --random is used then port mapping will be randomized (kernel >= 2.6.21).
--persistent
Gives a client the same source-/destination-address for each connection. This supersedes the SAME target. Support for persistent mappings is available from 2.6.29-rc2.

TCPMSS

This target allows to alter the MSS value of TCP SYN packets, to control the maximum size for that connection (usually limiting it to your outgoing interface's MTU minus 40 for IPv4 or 60 for IPv6, respectively). Of course, it can only be used in conjunction with -p tcp. It is only valid in the mangle table.
This target is used to overcome criminally braindead ISPs or servers which block "ICMP Fragmentation Needed" or "ICMPv6 Packet Too Big" packets. The symptoms of this problem are that everything works fine from your Linux firewall/router, but machines behind it can never exchange large packets:
1)

Web browsers connect, then hang with no data received.

2)

Small mail works fine, but large emails hang.

3)

ssh works fine, but scp hangs after initial handshaking.

Workaround: activate this option and add a rule to your firewall configuration like:
iptables -t mangle -A FORWARD -p tcp --tcp-flags SYN,RST SYN -j TCPMSS --clamp-mss-to-pmtu
--set-mss value
Explicitly sets MSS option to specified value. If the MSS of the packet is already lower than value, it will not be increased (from Linux 2.6.25 onwards) to avoid more problems with hosts relying on a proper MSS.
--clamp-mss-to-pmtu
Automatically clamp MSS value to (path_MTU - 40 for IPv4; -60 for IPv6). This may not function as desired where asymmetric routes with differing path MTU exist - the kernel uses the path MTU which it would use to send packets from itself to the source and destination IP addresses. Prior to Linux 2.6.25, only the path MTU to the destination IP address was considered by this option; subsequent kernels also consider the path MTU to the source IP address.
These options are mutually exclusive.

TCPOPTSTRIP

This target will strip TCP options off a TCP packet. (It will actually replace them by NO-OPs.) As such, you will need to add the -p tcp parameters.
--strip-options option[,option...]
Strip the given option(s). The options may be specified by TCP option number or by symbolic name. The list of recognized options can be obtained by calling iptables with -j TCPOPTSTRIP -h.

TOS

This module sets the Type of Service field in the IPv4 header (including the "precedence" bits) or the Priority field in the IPv6 header. Note that TOS shares the same bits as DSCP and ECN. The TOS target is only valid in the mangle table.
--set-tos value[/mask]
Zeroes out the bits given by mask and XORs value into the TOS/Priority field. If mask is omitted, 0xFF is assumed.
--set-tos symbol
You can specify a symbolic name when using the TOS target for IPv4. It implies a mask of 0xFF. The list of recognized TOS names can be obtained by calling iptables with -j TOS -h.
The following mnemonics are available:
--and-tos bits
Binary AND the TOS value with bits. (Mnemonic for --set-tos 0/invbits, where invbits is the binary negation of bits.)
--or-tos bits
Binary OR the TOS value with bits. (Mnemonic for --set-tos bits/bits.)
--xor-tos bits
Binary XOR the TOS value with bits. (Mnemonic for --set-tos bits/0.)

TPROXY

This target is only valid in the mangle table, in the PREROUTING chain and user-defined chains which are only called from this chain. It redirects the packet to a local socket without changing the packet header in any way. It can also change the mark value which can then be used in advanced routing rules. It takes three options:
--on-port port
This specifies a destination port to use. It is a required option, 0 means the new destination port is the same as the original. This is only valid if the rule also specifies -p tcp or -p udp.
--on-ip address
This specifies a destination address to use. By default the address is the IP address of the incoming interface. This is only valid if the rule also specifies -p tcp or -p udp.
--tproxy-mark value[/mask]
Marks packets with the given value/mask. The fwmark value set here can be used by advanced routing. (Required for transparent proxying to work: otherwise these packets will get forwarded, which is probably not what you want.)

TRACE

This target marks packes so that the kernel will log every rule which match the packets as those traverse the tables, chains, rules. (The ipt_LOG or ip6t_LOG module is required for the logging.) The packets are logged with the string prefix: "TRACE: tablename:chainname:type:rulenum " where type can be "rule" for plain rule, "return" for implicit rule at the end of a user defined chain and "policy" for the policy of the built in chains.
It can only be used in the raw table.

TTL

This is used to modify the IPv4 TTL header field. The TTL field determines how many hops (routers) a packet can traverse until it's time to live is exceeded.

Setting or incrementing the TTL field can potentially be very dangerous, so it should be avoided at any cost.

Don't ever set or increment the value on packets that leave your local network! mangle table.

--ttl-set value
Set the TTL value to 'value'.
--ttl-dec value
Decrement the TTL value 'value' times.
--ttl-inc value
Increment the TTL value 'value' times.

ULOG

This target provides userspace logging of matching packets. When this target is set for a rule, the Linux kernel will multicast this packet through a netlink socket. One or more userspace processes may then subscribe to various multicast groups and receive the packets. Like LOG, this is a "non-terminating target", i.e. rule traversal continues at the next rule.
--ulog-nlgroup nlgroup
This specifies the netlink group (1-32) to which the packet is sent. Default value is 1.
--ulog-prefix prefix
Prefix log messages with the specified prefix; up to 32 characters long, and useful for distinguishing messages in the logs.
--ulog-cprange size
Number of bytes to be copied to userspace. A value of 0 always copies the entire packet, regardless of its size. Default is 0.
--ulog-qthreshold size
Number of packet to queue inside kernel. Setting this value to, e.g. 10 accumulates ten packets inside the kernel and transmits them as one netlink multipart message to userspace. Default is 1 (for backwards compatibility).

Diagnostics

Various error messages are printed to standard error. The exit code is 0 for correct functioning. Errors which appear to be caused by invalid or abused command line parameters cause an exit code of 2, and other errors cause an exit code of 1.

Bugs

Bugs? What's this? ;-) Well, you might want to have a look at http://bugzilla.netfilter.org/

Compatibility With Ipchains

This iptables is very similar to ipchains by Rusty Russell. The main difference is that the chains INPUT and OUTPUT are only traversed for packets coming into the local host and originating from the local host respectively. Hence every packet only passes through one of the three chains (except loopback traffic, which involves both INPUT and OUTPUT chains); previously a forwarded packet would pass through all three.

The other main difference is that -i refers to the input interface; -o refers to the output interface, and both are available for packets entering the FORWARD chain.

The various forms of NAT have been separated out; iptables is a pure packet filter when using the default 'filter' table, with optional extension modules. This should simplify much of the previous confusion over the combination of IP masquerading and packet filtering seen previously. So the following options are handled differently:

-j MASQ
-M -S
-M -L
There are several other changes in iptables.

See Also

iptables-save(8), iptables-restore(8), ip6tables(8), ip6tables-save(8), ip6tables-restore(8), libipq(3).

The packet-filtering-HOWTO details iptables usage for packet filtering, the NAT-HOWTO details NAT, the netfilter-extensions-HOWTO details the extensions that are not in the standard distribution, and the netfilter-hacking-HOWTO details the netfilter internals.
See http://www.netfilter.org/.

Authors

Rusty Russell originally wrote iptables, in early consultation with Michael Neuling.

Marc Boucher made Rusty abandon ipnatctl by lobbying for a generic packet selection framework in iptables, then wrote the mangle table, the owner match, the mark stuff, and ran around doing cool stuff everywhere.

James Morris wrote the TOS target, and tos match.

Jozsef Kadlecsik wrote the REJECT target.

Harald Welte wrote the ULOG and NFQUEUE target, the new libiptc, as well as the TTL, DSCP, ECN matches and targets.

The Netfilter Core Team is: Marc Boucher, Martin Josefsson, Yasuyuki Kozakai, Jozsef Kadlecsik, Patrick McHardy, James Morris, Pablo Neira Ayuso, Harald Welte and Rusty Russell.

Man page originally written by Herve Eychenne <rv@wallfire.org>.

Referenced By

arptables(8), brctl(8), collectd.conf(5), ebtables(8), ferm(1), firehol(1), firehol.conf(5), fwsnort(8), ipq_destroy_handle(3), ipq_get_msgerr(3), ipq_perror(3), ipq_read(3), ipq_set_mode(3), ipq_set_verdict(3), iptables-xml(8), iptstate(8), ipvsadm(8), mountd(8), rpc.statd(8), shorewall(8), shorewall.conf(5)
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